Population: 3.120.000

Area: 1,566,000 sq km (610,740 sq mi) 

Land boundaries: 8,158 km, with Russia 3,485 km and with China 4,673 km 

Altitude: Average altitude is 1,580 m above sea-level with the highest point Huiten Peak at Altai Tavan Bogd at 4,374 m above sea level and lowest point being Huh Nuur Depression at 560 m altitude. 

Terrain: Mountain steppes in central and northern regions, vast semi-desert and desert plains, high mountains in west and Gobi Desert in the south 

People: Khalkha Mongols (86%), over 20 smaller Mongolian ethnic groups and Kazaks (6%)

Languages: Mongolian, Kazakh, Russian, Chinese. English is widely spoken in the Ulaanbaatar. 

Religions: Tibetan Buddhism, Muslim, Christian and Shamanism 

Climate: Relatively dry with extreme continental temperatures. Average summer temperature +20"C, average winter temperature -23"C, average rainfall 200-220 mm. Winter lasts from November to late April, Spring May through June, Summer from July through to September. 

Political system: Parliamentary republic. State Great Khural (Parliament), with 76 members elected for four years. The last election was held in July, 2004. President elected for four years. Present President was elected in 2005. Prime Minister appointed by State Great Khural for four years. 

Judicial system: Mongolian judicial system consists of Constitutional Court , Supreme Court, Aimag and capital city courts, soum and district courts. 

State structure: Mongolia is a unitary state and divided administratively into Aimags (21) and a capital city; Aimags are subdivided into soums; soums into bags; and a capital city into districts; districts into khoroos.

National currency: Tugrug (MNT), USD1 equals approx. 1380 tugrugs as of jan 2013. 

Economy: About a third of GDP is generated by mining industry based mainly on copper, gold, fluor spar and coal. Other major sectors are animal husbandry, light industries and tourism.

Public holidays: December 31- January 1 - New Year 3 days in January/February - Mongolian New Year (Tsagaan Sar), June 1 - Mother and Child day, July 11-13 - National Holiday (Naadam) 

Time: Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time 

Normal working hours: 09.00-13.00 and 14.00-18.00 

Electric current: 220 volts/50 HZ 


STATE EMBLEM                                                                                                                    Today, when the entire state and political structure in Mongolia has changed, the state emblem has changed altogether.
The new coat-of-arms surrounded by a loop of swastikas (tumen nasan), and displaying the lotus flower, the eight-wheel chakra and the hadak - blue silk scarf, are all foreign elements. But as far as the Soyombo ideogram is concerned, it is a different matter. Altough it is a Sanskrit word, it was designed by the first Mongolian theocrat ruler Ondor Gegeen Zanabazar in the 18th century, symbolizing the independence of Mongolia. The Mongols, since ancient times, have held in great respect horses, but since it is a land-creature, it was never incorporated into the state emblem or banner.
Under socialism, horse was used to symbolize the unbreakable unity between a worker and a herder, similarly like the hammer and sickle of the former Soviet Union. The old coat-of-arms of Mongolia showed a man on horseback with a long lasso (1940-60) and without a lasso (1960-91) galloping towards "communism". With the promulgation of the new Constitution, communism was rejected and the new coat-of-arms was approved in 1992.

NATIONAL FLAG                                                                                                                 The State Flag of the Mongolia is red-blue-red, arranged vertically with the State Emblem-Soyombo- in the upper left-hand corner. The ratio of the flag’s width to length is 1:2

SOYOMBO                                                                                                                         Since ancient times the Soyombo ideogram has been the national emblem of freedom and independence of the Mongols. At the top of the ideogram is a flame, which symbolizes blossoming, revival, upgrading and continuation of the family. The three prongs of the flame signify the prosperity of the people in the past, the present and the future.
Below the sign of the flame are the sun and the crescent, traditionally symbolizing the origin of the Mongolian people. The combination of the flame, the sun and the crescent expresses the wish: May the Mongolian people live and prosper.
The triangles at the top and bottom of the Soyombo are a general expression of the people’s willingness to defend the freedom and independence of the country, while the rectangles are the symbols of honesty, justice and nobility. There are two at the top and bottom, personifying honesty and selfless service to the homeland.
The fish, in Mongolian folklore, is a creature that never closes its eyes, i.e. remains vigilant. The two fish in the emblem symbolize the unity of the people: men and women. The cumulative meaning is: May the whole people be united, wise and vigilant. The two vertical rectangles on the sides of the emblem signify fortress walls and are a graphic presentation of the ancient Mongolian saying: ‘Two men in friendship are stronger than walls of stone: In the Soyombo they have the meaning: May the whole people be united in friendship, and then it will be stronger than the stone walls of a fortress.



A large number of ethnicities have inhabited Mongolia since prehistoric times. Most of these people were nomads who, from time to time, formed confederations that rose to prominence. The first of these, the Xiongnu, were brought together to form a confederation by Modun Shanyu in 209 BC. In 1206, Chinggis Khan (also known as Genghis Khan) founded the Mongol Empire, the largest empire in history. The Mongol Empire’s territory extended from present-day Poland in the west to the Korean peninsula in the east, from Siberia in the north to the Arab peninsula and Vietnam in the south, covering approximately 33 million square kilometers. In 1227, after Chinggis Khan’s death, the Mongol Empire was subdivided into four kingdoms. In 1260, Chinggis Khan’s grandson, Kublai Khan, ascended the throne of one of the four kingdoms that encompassed present-day Mongolia and China. In 1271, Kublai Khan formally established the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan Dynasty was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China until it was overthrown by the Chinese Ming Dynasty in 1368. The Mongol court returned to its native land, however, centuries of internal conflict, expansion and contraction brought them fall into Manchu Qing dynasty.  They conquered Inner Mongolia in 1636. Outer Mongolia was submitted in 1691. For the next two hundred years Mongolia was ruled by the Qing Dynasty until 1911. Mongolia declared its  independence in 1911 under the Bogd Khan, the spiritual  leader of Mongolia’s Tibetan Buddhism. However, the Chinese government still considered “Outer Mongolia” as part of it and invaded the country in 1919. In 1921, People’s Revolution won in Mongolia with the help of the Russian Red Army and thus Mongolia became the second socialist country in the world. After Bogd Khan’s death in 1924, the Mongolian People’s Republic was proclaimed and the first Constitution was adopted. Mongolia was under a Soviet-dominated Communist regime for almost 70 years, from 1921 to 1990.  In the fall of 1989 and the spring  of 1990, new currents of political thought began  to emerge in Mongolia, inspired by the  glasnost and perestroika in the Soviet Union and the collapse  of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe. In March 1990, a democratic revolution that started  with hunger strikes to overthrow the Government led to the  peaceful renouncement of communism. Mongolia’s renouncement of communism led to a multi-party system, a new constitution and a transition to a market economy. Over the past two decades, Mongolia has transformed itself from a socialist country with a planned economy into a vibrant multi-party democracy with one of the world’s  fastest  growing economies.

The population of Mongolian is 3.120.000 (official estimate 2017), out of which 40% are nomadic herdsmen. Most of Mongolia’s large land is very sparsely populated. The average population density is 1.5 per square kilometer, making the country one of the sparsest populated nations in the world. In the southern Gobi it is as scarce as 0.3 square kilometer.

Although this small population of Mongolia is scattered across the vast steppe, the urbanization rate is high. During the last two decades, migration from the rural areas has accelerated, with the proportion of the population living in urban areas rising to 54%. More than a third of the entire population or over a million people live in Ulaanbaatar. The population is homogeneous, with Mongol-speaking people constituting 95% of the total. The only substantial non-Mongol group, representing over 5% of the population, is the Kazaks, a Turkish-speaking people dwelling in the far West. A Chinese minority lives in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolians can be subdivided into more than 20 different ethnic groups, which are scattered across the country, these groups can be distinguished by their individual customs, histories and dialects.
The largest ethnic group is Khalha, which accounts for over 75% of the total population mainly live in central, eastern and southern Mongolia.

The Oirats are a group of ethnic western Mongolians, which includes smaller groups, Durvud, Torgud, bayad, Uuld, Zakhchin, Myangad and Uriankhai. Since the early history of Mongolian Oirat people have resided around Siberia’s Lake Baikal, the Sayan Mountain Ranges in Northern Mongolia and forested areas within the Altai Mountain Range. The name Oirat translates as forest people. After the fall of the Mongol empire in the 14th century, Oirat became an independent state, known as Dzhungarian Kingdom. It covered western Mongolia and the eastern Chinese steppe and only became part of the Mongolian Republic during the Manchurian conquest in the 1600’s. Northern Mongolian ethnic groups include the Darkhat, Tsaatan, and Khotgoid. They inhabit the dense forests of Huvsgul lake area, near the Russian border. The Buryat are the only group who originates from the vast eastern steppe.

Mongolia is a country of a unique symbiosis of various religions. Mongolia traditionally having professed polytheistic religion remains remarkably tolerant as regards of religion has always been ensured and guaranteed by the lifestyle traditions and mentality of people living in Mongolia. From time immemorial it has been practiced in Mongolia. Shamanist embraces a belief in powerful spirits who can influence people’s lives and fate. Today shamanism is on the blink of ceasing to exist with only few superficial rituals being practiced in some out of the away places. Buddhism of Mongolia-Lamaism has many followers in today’s Mongolia. According to chronicles, Buddhism came to Mongolia around the 13th century B.C as a religion of the court. Between 6-11 centuries, many Buddhism sutras were translated into Mongolia and in the 13th century the very first Buddhist temples were built. Chinggis khan who is known to be extraordinarily tolerant as regards religious rituals, encouraged Buddhism and Islamic devotions. Khubilai khan is alleged to have first confirmed a title of Dalai Lama (Dalai Lama in Mongolia a means a monk of immeasurable knowledge) from upon a Lama from Tibet. The first Dalai Lama converted Mongolia King Altan Khan and his subjects to Buddhism in 1578. During the rule of Altai Khan the famous monastery of Erdene-Zuu was built a popular tourist destination at present.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Mongolia has hundreds of Buddhist monasteries and about 30 percent of all men were monks. Communists led an anti-reliqious campaign in the 1930s, which nearly destroyed the extensive system of monasteries. Democratic reform that started in 1990 allowed freedom of religion; well over 100 monasteries have reopened. Mongolia used to be the second, after Tibet, stronghold of Buddhist religion.

In early time, in the Western part of Mongolia Islam is professed by the Kazakhs so Kazakh Muslims are allowed to practice Islam.

In seven decades Buddhism was almost eradicated, but the liberalization of 1990 allowed its peaceful revival. Now more than 140 Buddhist monasteries have been set up a new.

Under this newly found freedom of belief, other religions flocked in, including more than 80 churches and cults of various forms of Christianity are being introduced by Western missionaries.

Mongolia is a landlocked country in Northern Asia, strategically located between China and Russia.
At 1,564,116 km2 (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the world"s 19th-largest country (after Iran). It is significantly larger than the next-largest country, Peru.

The geography of Mongolia is varied with the Gobi Desert to the south and with cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Much of Mongolia consists of steppes and much of the Gobi Desert. 

The terrain is one of mountains and rolling plateaus, with a high degree of relief. Overall, the land slopes from the high Altai Mountains of the west and the north to plains and depressions in the east and the south. The Khuiten Peak in extreme western Mongolia on the Chinese border is the highest point (4,374 meters). The lowest is 518 meters, an otherwise undistinguished spot in the eastern Mongolian plain. The country has an average elevation of 1,580 meters. The landscape includes one of Asia"s largest freshwater lakes (Lake Khuvsgul), many salt lakes, marshes, sand dunes, rolling grasslands, alpine forests, and permanent mountain glaciers. Northern and western Mongolia are seismically active zones, with frequent earthquakes and many hot springs and extinct volcanoes.

The productive regions of Mongolia—a tableland ranging from 3,000 to 5,000 ft (914 to 1,524 m) in elevation—are in the north, which is well drained by numerous rivers, including the Hovd, Onon, Selenge and Tuul.

The Boundless Steppe                                                                                                                                                             Prominent in Eastern Mongolia, the vast steppe is the region where Great Chinggis Khaan was born and is one of the most unspoiled and unexplored mysterious areas in Mongolia. Rich in places of historical, ethnographical, natural value, the Dornod Mongolian steppe is famous for its rare fauna and flora, and dramatic sunrises and sunsets. And the steppe is home to rich wildlife, especially thousands of white tailed gazelles and other species. Not only it holds one of the last great plain on earth, but it also allows you to feel a sensation of freedom while traveling through this human free boundless area.

The Great Gobi Desert                                                                                                                                                                 Gobi, one of the world’s most unusual deserts covers over 30 percent of the Mongolian territory, stretches for 3,000 miles along the border of Mongolia and China. The Gobi is home to many endemic animal species such as snow leopard, Gobi bear, wild mountain sheep (Argali), wild Horse (Takhi), Asian Wild Ass (Khulan), Wild Bactrian Camel (Khavtgai), Ibex (Yangir), black tailed antelope and gazelle. This is the area where Roy Chapman Andrews, the famous American paleontologist and his expedition, discovered the very first nest of dinosaur eggs on earth. Surprisingly, the harsh environment has produced the most resilient and remarkable people, who know every part of this desert in the back of their heads. Although now rare throughout the rest of the world, the two-humped Bactrian camel is common in Mongolia. This huge, yet gentle animal is the main source of milk and transport in the Gobi desert. The Mongolian Gobi consists of 33 different desert landscapes. Our tours in the lost country you will have a chance to ride through colorful valleys to the picturesque Khongor sand dunes, through rough but green saxaul forests to the ancient sea beds where dinosaur fossils were found by both local nomads and professional archeologists. But Gobi holds also many interesting places which are included in our tours, like Bayanzag and its “flaming cliffs”, Yol valley and its sheer rocky canyon, the oasis of Narandaats & Zulganai, and the mysterious land formations of Khermen Tsav, Ulaan Suvarga & Tsagaan Suvarga.

The Holy Altai Mountains                                                                                                                                                             The snow-covered peaks of the Mongolian Altai Mountain Range rise up to 4400m above sea level and you will find here remote alpine lakes teeming with fish, ancient stone monuments, intricate rock paintings and ancient Turkish burial grounds, swift rivers, larch forests, and valleys strewn with wildflowers. The backcountry of western Mongolia is still relatively unexplored and offers spectacular scenery and excellent opportunities for traveling. Journeying through this region, you will discover the unique culture of the Kazakhs, Mongolia’s only Muslim minority. Many Kazakhs still hunt with trained eagles in the winter months and you will have an opportunity to see these magnificent birds during your travels.

The Khangai & Taiga                                                                                                                                                         Located in the western half of Mongolia starting some 400 kilometres west – southwest of Ulaanbaatar, the Khangai are the country’s largest and third major mountain range after the Khentii and the Altai. Considered a transition zone from the Siberian taiga to steppe, the Khangai’s mountainous slopes are covered in thick forests, mostly larch, with a high diversity of other flora and fauna. The region’s lush, grass-covered valleys are fed by a multitude of streams, rivers and lakes. While travelling through this region you will explore bit of Switzerland where lush and serene vegetation and part of Siberia where winter is long and cold, with snow staying on the ground until May.

The Crystal Clear Lakes                                                                                                                                                               Mongolia holds several magnificent lakes. Among them, the Blue Pearl of Mongolia Khuvsgul Lake, containing 2 % of the world’s fresh water, is sacred by locals as “Mother Sea”. Uvs Lake is itself the biggest lake of country, covering 3,350 km², though its salted water. And Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake formed by lava flows from a volcanic eruption. Those and the numerous other lakes hold variety of fishes and attract many species of water birds.

The Protected Areas
Mongolians have a rich tradition to protect natural environment. Traditional nomadic life is based on the respect of nature. In 1778, the first protected area in the world was established in Mongolia. There are now 60 protected areas in Mongolia covering nearly 14% of the territory. Most of our tours are operated through those protected areas, since they contain many interesting sites. Then we can contribute to the protection of those areas by visiting them.

Mongolia is known to the world as country of "Blue Sky". Along with Southern Siberia this part of Asia has a continental climate, with long, cold, dry winters and brief, mild, and relatively wet summers.

The average summer temperature is +20c (+65F). Winter is –20c (-13F). The wind is 1.5-4.5m/s. The average rainfall is 200-220 mm. In Mongolia there are 250 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies.

When Arctic air masses dominate in mid-winter, temperatures average 68° F (-20° C) to 95° F (-35° C). In the Uvs Lake basin in northwestern Mongolia, known as one of the coldest places in all of Asia, the lowest temperature ever recorder is 136° F (-58° C). By contrast, summer time temperatures in the Gobi desert climb as high as 104° F (40° C). Annual precipitation ranges from 24 inches (600 mm.) in the Khentii, Altai, and Khuvsgul Mountains to less than 4 inches (100 mm.) in the Gobi. In some parts of the Gobi, no precipitation may fall for several years in a row. Global warming influences to climate of Mongolia. The average annual temperature in Mongolia has increased by about 1.3F (0.7oC) over the past 50 years.

We have 4 seasons, summer, autumn, winter and spring in Mongolia. We would like to say the best months are May to September. If you want to see birdlife, May is your month.

If you like warmest days with wild flowers, June and July with Naadam festival are yours. The months from August to September are yours if you like warm days with chilly mornings and evenings. August is also the wettest months of the year, but be assured that our climate is such that you will still have many sunny days at this time.

If you like the Gobi Desert, all months are good, even including October.

All direct flights come into Ulaanbaatar – most of them from Beijing, Moscow, Seoul, Tokyo or Berlin. The Trans-Mongolian train from Moscow or Beijing makes a particularly exhilarating entry into the country. There are domestic flights and trains from Ulaanbaatar to the rest of Mongolia.

Mongolia has one of the lowest crime rates in the world and compared to the US and Europe, is considered a very safe destination. Mongolian people are known for their nomadic hospitality and they will make you feel very welcome. You will feel our Mongolia as your country.

Requirements for travel visas vary widely depending on your nationality and your destination. If you do require a visa you can arrange them yourself or use the services of a travel agent or visa processing companies. If you need any invitation letters or something like that, then we would easily arrange that.

We do organize train and flight tickets with free of commission. So, when you arrive, you don't have to look for ticket offices by wasting your golden time.

Yes, you need the travel insurance. This is an affordable and comprehensive travel protection program that covers you for unexpected events that could cause you to cancel or interrupt your vacation, unexpected delays, medical assistance, loss of or damage to baggage.

It's extremely difficult to join a tour after it has begun. It is possible to leave a tour early however you will be responsible for your own arrangements from the moment you decide to leave the tour. You would also be responsible for all costs associated with joining a tour late or leaving one early. If you feel this may be necessary, please consult Mongol Gobi Taiga Tour, before you book your adventure.

Visa info

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Maecenas feugiat consequat diam. Maecenas metus. Vivamus diam purus, cursus a, commodo non, facilisis vitae, nulla. Aenean dictum lacinia tortor. Nunc iaculis